Second-line treatment for metastatic renal cell carcinoma

Metastatic renal cell carcinoma is cancer of the kidney that has spread to other sites in the body.

Participation in clinical trials is recommended to be the first option.

Cytokines are drugs that enhance the immune system, helping it to clear cancer cells. For patients that do not respond well to cytokine treatment, the following treatments are recommended:

  1. Sorafenib, a drug that inhibits tumour growth.
  2. Pazopanib, a drug that blocks tumour growth. It also inhibits the growth of new blood vessels that cancers need to support their growth, thus preventing the growth of cancer cells.
  3. Axitinib, a drug that inhibits the growth of cancer cells.
  4. Sunitinib, a drug that inhibits growth of blood vessels that cancers need to support their growth, thus preventing the growth of cancer cells.
  5. A treatment combination of bevacizumab and IFN-
  6. Best supportive care, medical care that focuses on relieving the symptoms caused by serious illnesses.

Some cancer cells produces many proteins known as vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) that stimulate the growth of blood vessels that cancers need to support their growth. Anti-VEGF therapy inhibits these proteins, thus preventing the growth of cancer cells.

For patients with prior anti-VEGF therapy, the following treatments are recommended:

  1. Everolimus, a drug that inhibits cancer cell growth.
  2. Axitinib, a drug that inhibits cancer cell growth as well.
  3. Anti-VEGF therapy that has not been used previously
  4. Best supportive care, medical care that focuses on relieving the symptoms caused by serious illnesses.

MTOR stands for Mechanistic Target Of Rapamycin. MTOR treatment targets a protein that regulates cell growth, hence slowing the growth of cancer cells.

For patients with prior MTOR treatment, the following treatments are recommended:

  1. Anti-VEGF targeted therapy
  2. Best supportive care, medical care that focuses on relieving the symptoms caused by serious illnesses.